Implement pre-designed contingency response plans. 6. b. Chemical Weapons (Consumer version), Madsen, J. HAZMAT Emergency Response Specialist (HES) Course Objectives: This course is designed for individuals who require specific knowledge in emergency response, including defining roles, determining PPE, ERP elements, spill and leak control measures and incident termination. The first arriving responder may be trained at the HAZMAT awareness level or may have no formal HAZMAT training. Basically – can this incident be medically managed with locally available resources, or is it a Mass Casualty / Mass Exposure Incident? The Hazardous Materials Emergency Response ICS has five major functional areas: Command, Operations, Planning, Logistics, and Finance. The plan provides a concise and coherent means of ... Sheriff & Hazmat Teams Local units of government typically have the primary role in protecting the public's safety and property from a spill through police and In cases of mass casualty HAZMAT exposures, the physician may also aid in adjusting the triage values of patients who may normally be deemed immediate (red tag) in the standard triage (START and JumpSTART), but due to their exposure are unlikely to survive regardless of intervention. I - Identify action options. Gases (DOT Class 2) pose at times extreme danger due to their ability to rapidly expand if heated or otherwise improperly released. In the case of a planned act of violence these may be attached to a bomb or otherwise may have been weaponized for use in bioterrorism (Box 72-4). Asphyxiation risk is due to a materials ability to cause displacement of oxygen, or the rendering of the lungs incapable of exchanging gases. You may be the Incident Commander until more senior or experienced personnel arrive. Discuss some specific concerns based on different types of hazards. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 3 Typically responders should be on the alert when a collection of chemicals, cleaners, or other industrial use materials are found in the kitchen or living spaces, especially when cooking equipment, scales, and industrial/chemistry glass implements are also noted. The chemicals used in the “cooking” of methamphetamine, for example, present significant hazards, as do the by-products of the “cook” (Box 72-3). Description. Classes of chemical warfare agents include: Figure 3. Another way is conducting practical exercises using the Emergency Response Guidebook to identify hazards and response objectives. Use the ERG for initial. Hazard & Risk Evaluation. This is the time for consultation of a health physics expert because there is not really a direct conversion to dose rate. What are the criteria that strategic goals are selected. (Reproduced with permission from Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. Summarize types of response information available from the Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG), safety data sheets (SDS), shipping papers with emergency response information, and other resources. Thompson, J.A. Hazmat training learning objectives are: Students will be able to safeguard own self and other’s health and safety when their work involves exposure to hazmat; Students will gain the knowledge and skills needed to recognize and determine the presence of hazmat; … As you proceed, it will help to know that this work produced a new framework for thinking about hazardous materials emergencies, new response objectives, new incident decision processes, new ways for assessing response performance and above all, about a 90%+ reduction in casualties among emergency responders at hazmat emergencies. The DOT defined nine categories depicted in Table 72-2. The IC’s hazmat strategic goals include rescue, public protective actions, spill control (confinement), leak control (containment), fire control, and transfer and recovery. Event recognition involves the gathering of key information about an emergency incident (called cues) and then using those cues to trigger recognition of what incident is taking place. 1.1.1* This standard shall identify the minimum levels of competence required by responders to emergencies involving hazardous materials/weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The major objective of this training is to provide the individual with instruction on the response actions and safe practices associated with commanding a hazardous materials incident. On the other hand, hazmat response often presents a mental roadblock for the first-arriving companies and first-arriving commanders. Response levels 1. INITIAL response OBJECTIVES . US Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Office of Hazardous Material Safety 2005–2014. Chemical Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Incident:  A chemical MEI resulting from the deliberate release of chemicals intended to cause widespread harm. Emergency Training Division has developed this online Hazardous Materials (Hazmat) Awareness training program for personnel working for federal, state, and local government agencies. ƒ Verify policies and procedures for responding to hazardous materials incidents. ... HAZMAT response coordinator, and the re-gional HAZMAT team Outline of emergency notification procedures This course differs from an Incident Command System (ICS) course in that it goes beyond ICS response objectives. Describe PPE types and appropriate use of each. Follow applicable checklists for activation procedures, Table #1 and Appendix 3. In a chemical HAZMAT incident, the decisions made and actions taken in the first few minutes of a response will often establish the character of the overall response – and ultimately its success or failure. Students develop action plans that focus on various strategic goals and assigning tactical objectives. Miscellaneous (DOT Class 9) can be any hazardous substance not meeting the other definitions. Illustrate types of response objectives and types of action options. The objectives must be based upon those priorities, which have already been identified. Nonstochastic effects include burns, hair loss, cataract, hemopoietic syndrome, gastrointestinal syndrome, and central nervous system dysfunction. The Department of Transportation (DOT) has defined classes of hazardous materials in an effort to categorize like materials and establish general patterns of handling and hazard mitigation. This thought-provoking course is designed to get you thinking about common problems and how to resolve them. Life safety is always the top priority in an emergency response. Chemical risk refers to a materials activity when interacting with substances that make it react in a hazardous way, or to the reaction it has when in contact with humans (eg, creation of toxic fumes during a reaction, chemical burns). Protect Yourself and Others: Establish an Isolation Zone and move outside it. Identify the Objectives: a. If a health physics technologist is present and can estimate dose/minute, then this may be used to calculate estimated dose and in ALARA calculations for rescuers (www.radprocalculator.com/ALARA.aspx). Ciottone's Disaster Medicine (Second Edition), 2016, Pages 651-655, Chemical/Biological/Radiological Incident Handbook (CIA), 2016 Emergency Response Guidebook (PDF - 4.7 MB) (DOT PHMSA), How to Recognize if Chemical Agents Have Been Used (PDF - 175 KB) (North Dakota Department of Health), Chemical Terrorism General Guidance - Pocket Guide (PDF - 251 KB) (Employee Education System for the Office of Public Health and Environmental Hazards, Department of Veterans Affairs). Based on the incident objectives for the response period consider the issues and priorities: Determine which HazMat Branch functions need to be activated: Detection and Monitoring Unit Large capacity containers are common in all forms of local, interstate, and international transportation of these substances. These key decisions and actions will often be made and taken by first arriving response personnel – those who are already at the scene or are initially dispatched. during such responses. As shown in Figure 3, there are three levels of recognition for a HAZMAT incident: Chemical HAZMAT Incident:  The imminent or actual release of a chemically harmful substance into the environment at levels that require urgent response to contain the release and protect humans and the environment. The event- and environment-related cues listed are those that can reasonably be observed by non-HAZMAT personnel at a protective distance away from the scene. In emergency medicine, the golden hour refers to a time period lasting for one hour or less following traumatic injury being sustained by a casualty or medical emergency, during which there is the highest likelihood that prompt medical treatment will prevent death. Ionizing radiation is biologically significant due to the fact that it has a high frequency and short wave length, and carries enough kinetic energy to liberate an electron and ionize the affected atom or molecule. Planning Landscape. The EMS physician and/or medical director should be involved in disaster and operational response planning and actively seek out training and drill opportunities. It is important to note that rescuers with an estimated potential risk of receiving over 25,000 mrem should be involved in lifesaving activities and be made aware of the risks. Implementing the Planned Response to a Hazmat/WMD Incident OBJECtiVES Upon completion of the chapter, you should be able to do the following: Identify the items that should be addressed in a safety briefing for personnel operating at the scene of a hazmat/WMD incident. Tables below list the essential event and patient cues to watch for in the first seconds and minutes after arriving at the incident scene (as well as before arriving – through information from Dispatch and other sources). Ionizing radiation. student shall describe the first responder’s response objectives for each problem and also shall meet the following requirements: 1. A.1.1.1 Outside the United States, hazardous materials might be called dangerous goods (see Annex E). The result is situational understanding. Special training and experience are key components to a successful hazardous materials operation. They will have responsibility for recognizing the type and scale of the incident, activating the response system and managing the event until relieved. Unit Objectives • Identify OSHA and EPA training requirements • Identify the role of the Awareness Level First Responder • Identify the roles of the Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) and the State Emergency Response Commission (SERC) Response level I, any incident or threat of release that: a. This process will be used as the framework for organizing this information. If it is a HAZMAT incident, understand the initial scope and degree of hazard. Unfortunately, in the HAZMAT response scenario, this is no likely to be the case and the EMS physician is more likely to be given information in the form of counts per minute (CPM) from radiological survey meters. Immediate notification is particularly critical in a Chemical MEI or Chemical WMD Incident because rapid activation of large and specialized resources will likely be necessary to save lives. Ottawa, Canada: Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission; 2007: Figure 2.). Incident Recognition and Response Activation, IV. Details. Box 72-4 Some Infectious Agents Bacterial, Brucellosis (Brucella melitensis, Brucella suis, Brucella abortus, Brucella canis), Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (human immune virus), Chronic viral hepatitis (hepatitis C virus), Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (some Staphylococcus), Mycotoxins (Fusarium, Myrotecium , Cephalosporium, Trichoderma, Verticimonosporium, Stachybotrys). 6 Steps for Initial Response to a Chemical HAZMAT Incident. The Dirty Dozen – 12 Common Mistakes in HazMat Response. Key cues for recognition of a Chemical MEI. This series provides practical advice for response during the golden first minutes of a chemical HAZMAT event. Key cues for recognition of a Chemical HAZMAT Incident, HAZMAT labeled container (e.g., placard or chemical name) nearby with damage or breach, Chemical-related container (e.g., storage tank, tanker truck, rail tank car) nearby with damage or breach, An unexplained plume or cloud (e.g., not from a fire), Colored cloud or plume (e.g., green, yellow), Unexplained odors (e.g., bleach, ammonia, bitter almonds), Chemical-related facility (e.g., production, processing, storage, use, waste treatment, disposal) or container (e.g., storage tank, tanker truck, rail tank car) nearby, Low-lying clouds or fog not explained by the weather, Unusual number of dead or injured animals in the area, Dead fish, aquatic birds and/or insects in and around water sources, Unexplained liquid puddle or powder deposit, Oily sheens, coatings or droplets on surface, Clouds of dust or particles not explained by the weather or incident (e.g., building collapse), Unusual and unexplained dead, discolored or withered plant life in area, Confidence (IF OBSERVED IN MULTIPLE VICTIMS), Casualties with no apparent reason or trauma, Casualties clustered in a geographic area, especially downwind from incident scene or in low-lying areas, Same medical symptoms in multiple victims not explained by the incident, Breathing difficulty, coughing not otherwise explained (e.g., building collapse), Burns or irritation on skin (not from fire), Tearing of eyes not otherwise explained (e.g., building collapse), Disorientation not otherwise explained (e.g., explosion). Most EMS physicians are well versed in the occupational component of hazardous materials as it pertains to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations that apply to the work environment but may not be fully prepared to respond in support of a hazardous materials incident operation and may not even be familiar with the principles laid out in 29 CFR 1910.120 (Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response: HAZWOPER) or the availability of various publications on the topic provided by OSHA, NIOSH, FEMA, and the EPA. The key to event recognition is gather the minimum number of cues that give an initial responder confidence to declare that a Chemical HAZMAT, Chemical MEI or Chemical WMD incident is occurring. 7.0 Select and Implement Response Objectives (Reprinted from phmsa.dot.gov/HAZMAT/library/data-stats/incidents. Figure 2. And the urgency is even greater in the event of a chemical Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) incident, such as a Chemical Warfare Agent release. There’s always an Incident Commander for an emergency – including chemical HAZMAT emergencies. Transportation of hazardous materials occurs through every community with roads, railroad tracks, pipelines, or waterways (Table 72-1, Figure 72-2). Title. This is even more true for mass casualty incidents resulting from mass exposures to toxic materials. OSHA defines four HAZMAT worker protection levels, identified by the letters A, B, C, and D. Level A offers the most protection against hazardous materials, while Level D offers the least. Response Objectives and Immediate Actions, V. Incident Management and Command Transition, Triage, monitoring, and treatment of mass casualty events involving chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear agents, Overview of Incidents Involving Mass Casualty Weapons (Consumer version), Overview of Incidents Involving Mass Casualty Weapons (Professional version), Chemical Warfare Agents (Professional version), Nerve Agent Mass Casualty Incidents. Than industrial chemicals and can result in hundreds of victims or even more for... Issues, and international Transportation of these substances is by default the Incident scene manage! Although most EMS physicians are not HAZMAT technicians there are plenty of opportunities to land a hazardous materials response! Include: Figure 2 presents the initial response process for a physician responding hazardous... Responder will often be a separate component of a HAZMAT Incident include event-related... 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